With the help of Citizenship Amendment Act, now those of Hindus, Christians, Sikhs, Parsis, Jains and Buddhists of Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, who had entered India by the decisive date of 31 December 2014. They will all be eligible for citizenship of India. There is a lot of furore about CAA and NRC across the country at this time. While the Modi government and its supporters are welcoming it as a historic step, the opposition, Muslim organizations and students in many camps are opposing it. Let us understand what is CAA and what is the difference between CAA and CAB?
What is Citizenship Amendment Law (CAA)?
The full form of the Citizenship Amendment Act i.e. CAA is the Citizenship Amendment Act. This was the CAB (Citizenship Amendment Bill) before it was passed in Parliament. Talking about the difference between CAA and CAB, after passing in Parliament and the President’s approval, this bill has become an Act of Citizens Amendment Act. With the help of Citizenship Amendment Act, people of Hindu, Christian, Sikh, Parsi, Jain and Buddhism who have fled from Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh due to religious persecution will be given citizenship of India.
This is why protests are happening across the country
With the help of this act, people of Hindu, Christian, Sikh, Parsi, Jain and Buddhism who came from Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh will be given citizenship of India. But people of the religion of Islam have not been included in this act. After the enactment of the Citizenship Amendment Bill, now Hindus, Christians, Sikhs, Parsis, Jains and Buddhists from Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh and those who entered India by 31 December 2014. They will all be able to apply for citizenship of India. Opponents of this law say that it only talks about granting citizenship to non-Muslim people, so it is a religious discrimination law that is in violation of Article 14 of the Constitution.
What happened in the Supreme Court on CAA (Supreme Court on CAA)
The court took cognizance of all 59 petitions challenging the constitutional validity of the Citizenship Amendment Act, 2019. The court has expressly refused to impose a stay on the citizenship law. The court has issued a notice to the central government. Now the case will be heard on 22 January 2020.
What is Citizenship Amendment Act?
With the help of Citizenship Amendment Act, now those of Hindus, Christians, Sikhs, Parsis, Jains and Buddhists of Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, who had entered India by the decisive date of 31 December 2014. They will all be eligible for citizenship of India.
Has CAB Become a Law?
After passing the CAB i.e. Citizenship Amendment Bill in Parliament, the President’s seal has now become law.
Why does the Act leave Muslims out?
Home Minister Amit Shah says that Afghanistan, Pakistan and Bangladesh are Muslim countries. There Muslims are not oppressed in the name of religion, so they are not included in this act.
What is the cut-off date?
Date of cut-off for citizenship has been kept on 31 December 2014.
Who are people out of the CAA?
Apart from the tribal areas of Assam and Meghalaya, Mizoram or Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Nagaland are excluded from this law.
Does India have repatriation treaties with Bangladesh, Afghanistan and Pakistan?
Reversion is the process of sending someone back or sending someone back to their original place. Once the government determines the nationality of illegal migrants (according to the Act), ideally they should be sent back to their country of origin. However, India has no such treaty with Bangladesh, Pakistan and Afghanistan.
According to the Citizenship Act, 1955, who are illegal migrants?
People entering India without valid passports or travel documents or those entering with valid documents who have not returned even after the sanctioned period are all illegal migrants.
According to the new law, who are illegal migrants?
All Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Parsis or Christians from Afghanistan, Bangladesh or Pakistan who have entered India before December 2014 will not be considered illegal migrants. Apart from them, people entering India without a valid passport or travel documents or those entering with valid documents who have not returned even after the sanctioned period are all illegal migrants.
Why is there a protest against this law?
Opponents say that this law is against the basic spirit and secularism of the Constitution. In this law, illegal migrants living in the country are being distributed on religious grounds. It talks about giving citizenship to people of six religions living illegally in the country as refugees, but calls such Muslims as intruders. This law is also being told to prepare for NRC. In future, only Muslims will have to prove their citizenship by bringing NRC, while the other six religions will get exemption from this. Those Muslims who will not be able to prove citizenship of India will be kept in the Detention Center on the lines of Assam.